Primary Census Abstract
S No. State / UT Number of household Total population Population ( 0-6 years ) Scheduled Castes Scheduled Tribes Literates Illiterates Total workers Main workers Main Cultivators Main Agricultural labourers Main household industry Main others Marginal workers Marginal Cultivators Marginal Agricultural labourers Marginal Household industry Marginal Others Non-workers
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
                                                                                                                 
1 India 193,579,954 1,028,737,436 532,223,090 496,514,346 163,819,614 84,999,203 78,820,411 166,635,700 86,088,780 80,546,940 84,326,240 42,640,829 41,685,411 560,687,797 336,533,716 224,154,081 467,922,531 195,623,056 272,299,475 402,234,724 275,014,476 127,220,248 313,004,983 240,147,813 72,857,170 103,626,068 78,258,978 25,367,090 63,497,114 41,119,069 22,378,045 12,206,084 7,509,013 4,697,071 133,675,717 113,260,753 20,414,964 89,229,741 34,866,663 54,363,078 23,686,783 7,157,520 16,529,263 43,278,216 16,210,031 27,068,185 4,750,858 1,235,170 3,515,688 17,513,884 10,263,942 7,249,942 626,375,604 257,142,296 369,233,308
                                                                                                                 
2 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 78,242 356,152 192,972 163,180 44,781 22,885 21,896 0 0 0 29,469 15,127 14,342 253,135 146,831 106,304 103,017 46,141 56,876 136,254 109,162 27,092 113,607 97,349 16,258 15,505 12,905 2,600 2,683 2,470 213 4,792 3,966 826 90,627 78,008 12,619 22,647 11,813 10,834 5,956 2,032 3,924 2,486 1,573 913 2,294 689 1,605 11,911 7,519 4,392 219,898 83,810 136,088
3 Andhra Pradesh 17,004,305 76,210,007 38,527,413 37,682,594 10,171,857 5,187,321 4,984,536 12,339,496 6,228,011 6,111,485 5,024,104 2,548,295 2,475,809 39,934,323 23,444,788 16,489,535 36,275,684 15,082,625 21,193,059 34,893,859 21,662,192 13,231,667 29,040,873 19,455,492 9,585,381 7,397,688 5,040,681 2,357,007 9,823,264 5,141,014 4,682,250 1,352,705 637,209 715,496 10,467,216 8,636,588 1,830,628 5,852,986 2,206,700 3,646,286 461,846 160,883 300,963 4,008,888 1,312,727 2,696,161 289,400 73,013 216,387 1,092,852 660,077 432,775 41,316,148 16,865,221 24,450,927
4 Arunachal Pradesh 215,574 1,097,968 579,941 518,027 205,871 104,833 101,038 6,188 3,590 2,598 705,158 352,017 353,141 484,785 303,281 181,504 613,183 276,660 336,523 482,902 293,612 189,290 415,007 267,384 147,623 234,847 121,349 113,498 10,649 7,081 3,568 4,152 2,628 1,524 165,359 136,326 29,033 67,895 26,228 41,667 44,453 14,987 29,466 8,191 3,248 4,943 1,891 549 1,342 13,360 7,444 5,916 615,066 286,329 328,737
5 Assam 4,914,823 26,655,528 13,777,037 12,878,491 4,498,075 2,289,116 2,208,959 1,825,949 943,674 882,275 3,308,570 1,678,117 1,630,453 14,015,354 8,188,697 5,826,657 12,640,174 5,588,340 7,051,834 9,538,591 6,870,960 2,667,631 7,114,097 5,849,032 1,265,065 2,680,092 2,238,423 441,669 636,351 540,769 95,582 181,120 106,681 74,439 3,616,534 2,963,159 653,375 2,424,494 1,021,928 1,402,566 1,050,681 395,645 655,036 627,181 291,739 335,442 163,792 27,221 136,571 582,840 307,323 275,517 17,116,937 6,906,077 10,210,860
6 Bihar 13,744,130 82,998,509 43,243,795 39,754,714 16,806,063 8,652,705 8,153,358 13,048,608 6,784,676 6,263,932 758,351 393,114 365,237 31,109,577 20,644,376 10,465,201 51,888,932 22,599,419 29,289,513 27,974,606 20,483,003 7,491,603 21,052,875 17,511,018 3,541,857 6,770,073 5,949,328 820,745 9,020,151 6,881,169 2,138,982 749,348 550,521 198,827 4,513,303 4,130,000 383,303 6,921,731 2,971,985 3,949,746 1,423,548 507,937 915,611 4,397,593 1,849,082 2,548,511 351,076 106,141 244,935 749,514 508,825 240,689 55,023,903 22,760,792 32,263,111
                                                                                                                 
7 Chandigarh 206,465 900,635 506,938 393,697 115,613 62,664 52,949 157,597 86,187 71,410 0 0 0 643,245 382,686 260,559 257,390 124,252 133,138 340,422 284,419 56,003 328,989 277,050 51,939 1,799 1,521 278 445 377 68 3,167 2,296 871 323,578 272,856 50,722 11,433 7,369 4,064 342 166 176 118 84 34 713 208 505 10,260 6,911 3,349 560,213 222,519 337,694
8 Chhattisgarh 4,091,551 20,833,803 10,474,218 10,359,585 3,554,916 1,800,413 1,754,503 2,418,722 1,213,194 1,205,528 6,616,596 3,287,334 3,329,262 11,173,149 6,711,395 4,461,754 9,660,654 3,762,823 5,897,831 9,679,871 5,531,859 4,148,012 7,054,595 4,742,935 2,311,660 3,488,672 2,246,705 1,241,967 1,552,083 826,688 725,395 158,691 103,059 55,632 1,855,149 1,566,483 288,666 2,625,276 788,924 1,836,352 822,459 219,772 602,687 1,539,275 435,871 1,103,404 40,000 12,801 27,199 223,542 120,480 103,062 11,153,932 4,942,359 6,211,573
9 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 45,586 220,490 121,666 98,824 40,199 20,308 19,891 4,104 2,159 1,945 137,225 67,663 69,562 103,904 72,149 31,755 116,586 49,517 67,069 114,122 75,835 38,287 96,184 71,156 25,028 32,287 16,591 15,696 6,945 3,514 3,431 691 447 244 56,261 50,604 5,657 17,938 4,679 13,259 7,183 1,481 5,702 7,770 1,915 5,855 159 45 114 2,826 1,238 1,588 106,368 45,831 60,537
10 Daman & Diu 35,686 158,204 92,512 65,692 20,578 10,685 9,893 4,838 2,498 2,340 13,997 7,190 6,807 107,600 70,992 36,608 50,604 21,520 29,084 72,791 60,569 12,222 67,522 58,874 8,648 2,743 1,821 922 445 263 182 594 366 228 63,740 56,424 7,316 5,269 1,695 3,574 1,291 187 1,104 878 84 794 586 15 571 2,514 1,409 1,105 85,413 31,943 53,470
11 Delhi 2,733,383 13,850,507 7,607,234 6,243,273 2,016,849 1,079,618 937,231 2,343,255 1,265,182 1,078,073 0 0 0 9,664,764 5,700,847 3,963,917 4,185,743 1,906,387 2,279,356 4,545,234 3,960,101 585,133 4,317,516 3,794,345 523,171 31,310 24,468 6,842 10,629 8,075 2,554 125,977 106,718 19,259 4,149,600 3,655,084 494,516 227,718 165,756 61,962 6,121 2,372 3,749 5,144 3,149 1,995 14,055 5,804 8,251 202,398 154,431 47,967 9,305,273 3,647,133 5,658,140
                                                                                                                 
12 Goa 294,812 1,347,668 687,248 660,420 145,968 75,338 70,630 23,791 12,047 11,744 566 299 267 985,562 541,032 444,530 362,106 146,216 215,890 522,855 375,218 147,637 425,305 326,993 98,312 29,678 18,365 11,313 11,842 6,858 4,984 10,239 7,243 2,996 373,546 294,527 79,019 97,550 48,225 49,325 20,717 7,343 13,374 23,964 9,112 14,852 4,507 1,748 2,759 48,362 30,022 18,340 824,813 312,030 512,783
13 Gujarat 9,691,362 50,671,017 26,385,577 24,285,440 7,532,404 4,000,148 3,532,256 3,592,715 1,866,283 1,726,432 7,481,160 3,790,117 3,691,043 29,827,750 17,833,273 11,994,477 20,843,267 8,552,304 12,290,963 21,255,521 14,477,286 6,778,235 17,025,074 13,480,566 3,544,508 4,711,094 3,730,923 980,171 3,048,713 2,004,136 1,044,577 306,139 223,544 82,595 8,959,128 7,521,963 1,437,165 4,230,447 996,720 3,233,727 1,091,587 175,774 915,813 2,112,945 505,515 1,607,430 123,543 20,291 103,252 902,372 295,140 607,232 29,415,496 11,908,291 17,507,205
14 Haryana 3,712,319 21,144,564 11,363,953 9,780,611 3,335,537 1,833,655 1,501,882 4,091,110 2,188,585 1,902,525 0 0 0 12,093,677 7,480,209 4,613,468 9,050,887 3,883,744 5,167,143 8,377,466 5,715,526 2,661,940 6,241,324 4,933,004 1,308,320 2,224,642 1,647,163 577,479 607,871 462,454 145,417 153,021 115,120 37,901 3,255,790 2,708,267 547,523 2,136,142 782,522 1,353,620 793,372 208,384 584,988 670,950 254,679 416,271 61,734 16,949 44,785 610,086 302,510 307,576 12,767,098 5,648,427 7,118,671
15 Himachal Pradesh 1,221,589 6,077,900 3,087,940 2,989,960 793,137 418,426 374,711 1,502,170 763,333 738,837 244,587 122,549 122,038 4,041,621 2,278,386 1,763,235 2,036,279 809,554 1,226,725 2,992,461 1,686,658 1,305,803 1,963,882 1,333,361 630,521 1,089,124 578,807 510,317 36,156 26,499 9,657 34,917 27,671 7,246 803,685 700,384 103,301 1,028,579 353,297 675,282 865,746 255,505 610,241 58,015 29,159 28,856 17,602 6,363 11,239 87,216 62,270 24,946 3,085,439 1,401,282 1,684,157
16 Jammu & Kashmir 1,568,519 10,143,700 5,360,926 4,782,774 1,485,803 765,394 720,409 770,155 403,256 366,899 1,105,979 578,949 527,030 4,807,286 3,060,628 1,746,658 5,336,414 2,300,298 3,036,116 3,753,815 2,679,941 1,073,874 2,608,668 2,226,958 381,710 948,534 792,387 156,147 103,089 93,313 9,776 135,690 98,647 37,043 1,421,355 1,242,611 178,744 1,145,147 452,983 692,164 642,980 212,148 430,832 143,332 97,026 46,306 98,782 27,615 71,167 260,053 116,194 143,859 6,389,885 2,680,985 3,708,900
                                                                                                                 
17 Jharkhand 4,799,081 26,945,829 13,885,037 13,060,792 4,956,827 2,522,036 2,434,791 3,189,320 1,640,583 1,548,737 7,087,068 3,565,960 3,521,108 11,777,201 7,646,857 4,130,344 15,168,628 6,238,180 8,930,448 10,109,030 6,659,856 3,449,174 6,446,782 5,134,067 1,312,715 2,655,823 1,988,551 667,272 1,052,325 758,101 294,224 282,493 192,433 90,060 2,456,141 2,194,982 261,159 3,662,248 1,525,789 2,136,459 1,233,683 416,820 816,863 1,798,972 727,221 1,071,751 148,472 45,033 103,439 481,121 336,715 144,406 16,836,799 7,225,181 9,611,618
18 Karnataka 10,401,918 52,850,562 26,898,918 25,951,644 7,182,100 3,690,958 3,491,142 8,563,930 4,339,745 4,224,185 3,463,986 1,756,238 1,707,748 30,434,962 17,661,211 12,773,751 22,415,600 9,237,707 13,177,893 23,534,791 15,235,355 8,299,436 19,364,759 13,896,845 5,467,914 6,186,932 4,668,070 1,518,862 3,783,852 1,961,368 1,822,484 795,212 368,699 426,513 8,598,763 6,898,708 1,700,055 4,170,032 1,338,510 2,831,522 696,924 164,770 532,154 2,443,090 659,559 1,783,531 164,453 36,392 128,061 865,565 477,789 387,776 29,315,771 11,663,563 17,652,208
19 Kerala 6,726,356 31,841,374 15,468,614 16,372,760 3,793,146 1,935,027 1,858,119 3,123,941 1,525,114 1,598,827 364,189 180,169 184,020 25,485,688 12,753,602 12,732,086 6,355,686 2,715,012 3,640,674 10,283,887 7,765,645 2,518,242 8,236,973 6,460,693 1,776,280 586,360 515,371 70,989 1,021,559 714,772 306,787 275,654 161,019 114,635 6,353,400 5,069,531 1,283,869 2,046,914 1,304,952 741,962 137,795 86,667 51,128 599,292 363,582 235,710 94,013 30,618 63,395 1,215,814 824,085 391,729 21,557,487 7,702,969 13,854,518
20 Lakshadweep 9,993 60,650 31,131 29,519 9,091 4,641 4,450 0 0 0 57,321 28,611 28,710 44,683 24,511 20,172 15,967 6,620 9,347 15,354 13,204 2,150 11,710 10,288 1,422 0 0 0 0 0 0 155 99 56 11,555 10,189 1,366 3,644 2,916 728 0 0 0 0 0 0 747 438 309 2,897 2,478 419 45,296 17,927 27,369
21 Madhya Pradesh 10,912,025 60,348,023 31,443,652 28,904,371 10,782,214 5,579,847 5,202,367 9,155,177 4,804,881 4,350,296 12,233,474 6,195,240 6,038,234 31,592,563 19,672,274 11,920,289 28,755,460 11,771,378 16,984,082 25,793,519 16,194,368 9,599,151 19,102,572 14,056,279 5,046,293 8,911,841 6,389,368 2,522,473 3,880,905 2,393,898 1,487,007 731,016 446,037 284,979 5,578,810 4,826,976 751,834 6,690,947 2,138,089 4,552,858 2,126,065 493,408 1,632,657 3,519,765 1,124,470 2,395,295 302,297 73,090 229,207 742,820 447,121 295,699 34,554,504 15,249,284 19,305,220
                                                                                                                 
22 Maharashtra 19,576,736 96,878,627 50,400,596 46,478,031 13,671,126 7,146,432 6,524,694 9,881,656 5,063,062 4,818,594 8,577,276 4,347,754 4,229,522 63,965,943 37,184,963 26,780,980 32,912,684 13,215,633 19,697,051 41,173,351 26,852,095 14,321,256 34,748,053 24,416,295 10,331,758 10,181,708 6,180,984 4,000,724 7,641,219 3,941,652 3,699,567 810,086 493,886 316,200 16,115,040 13,799,773 2,315,267 6,425,298 2,435,800 3,989,498 1,631,567 499,712 1,131,855 3,174,043 982,382 2,191,661 279,232 72,975 206,257 1,340,456 880,731 459,725 55,705,276 23,548,501 32,156,775
23 Manipur 375,095 2,293,896 1,161,952 1,131,944 308,585 157,682 150,903 60,037 29,934 30,103 741,141 374,319 366,822 1,310,534 753,466 557,068 856,254 342,168 514,086 945,213 527,216 417,997 659,364 430,227 229,137 285,809 174,869 110,940 41,819 25,387 16,432 43,163 14,337 28,826 288,573 215,634 72,939 285,849 96,989 188,860 93,896 39,413 54,483 71,811 24,541 47,270 53,757 6,210 47,547 66,385 26,825 39,560 1,221,575 568,418 653,157
24 Meghalaya 418,850 2,318,822 1,176,087 1,142,735 467,979 237,215 230,764 11,139 5,920 5,219 1,992,862 996,567 996,295 1,157,875 614,272 543,603 1,160,947 561,815 599,132 970,146 568,491 401,655 757,011 485,694 271,317 380,321 224,551 155,770 94,938 60,188 34,750 13,917 7,476 6,441 267,835 193,479 74,356 213,135 82,797 130,338 86,689 30,467 56,222 76,756 30,700 46,056 7,308 1,882 5,426 42,382 19,748 22,634 1,348,676 607,596 741,080
25 Mizoram 176,134 888,573 459,109 429,464 143,734 73,176 70,558 272 212 60 839,310 422,963 416,347 661,445 350,105 311,340 227,128 109,004 118,124 467,159 263,008 204,151 362,450 225,428 137,022 202,875 113,014 89,861 10,840 6,710 4,130 4,372 2,747 1,625 144,363 102,957 41,406 104,709 37,580 67,129 53,457 17,483 35,974 15,943 6,065 9,878 2,728 729 1,999 32,581 13,303 19,278 421,414 196,101 225,313
26 Nagaland 328,057 1,990,036 1,047,141 942,895 289,678 147,524 142,154 0 0 0 1,774,026 913,203 860,823 1,132,323 640,201 492,122 857,713 406,940 450,773 847,796 488,968 358,828 703,977 424,811 279,166 458,677 232,652 226,025 12,059 7,330 4,729 11,560 5,933 5,627 221,681 178,896 42,785 143,819 64,157 79,662 90,168 38,275 51,893 18,848 8,655 10,193 10,313 3,260 7,053 24,490 13,967 10,523 1,142,240 558,173 584,067
                                                                                                                 
27 Orissa 7,738,065 36,804,660 18,660,570 18,144,090 5,358,810 2,744,552 2,614,258 6,082,063 3,073,278 3,008,785 8,145,081 4,066,783 4,078,298 19,837,055 11,992,333 7,844,722 16,967,605 6,668,237 10,299,368 14,276,488 9,802,006 4,474,482 9,589,269 8,004,740 1,584,529 3,435,170 3,004,654 430,516 2,098,158 1,570,444 527,714 404,208 258,151 146,057 3,651,733 3,171,491 480,242 4,687,219 1,797,266 2,889,953 812,491 343,037 469,454 2,900,946 1,016,752 1,884,194 297,355 61,860 235,495 676,427 375,617 300,810 22,528,172 8,858,564 13,669,608
28 Pondicherry 215,538 974,345 486,961 487,384 117,159 59,565 57,594 157,771 78,140 79,631 0 0 0 696,367 378,758 317,609 277,978 108,203 169,775 342,655 258,670 83,985 317,367 245,205 72,162 10,511 9,409 1,102 59,594 36,631 22,963 5,368 2,988 2,380 241,894 196,177 45,717 25,288 13,465 11,823 389 228 161 12,657 5,486 7,171 971 260 711 11,271 7,491 3,780 631,690 228,291 403,399
29 Punjab 4,348,580 24,358,999 12,985,045 11,373,954 3,171,829 1,763,801 1,408,028 7,028,723 3,714,350 3,314,373 0 0 0 14,756,970 8,442,293 6,314,677 9,602,029 4,542,752 5,059,277 9,127,474 6,960,213 2,167,261 7,835,732 6,426,028 1,409,704 1,894,024 1,713,256 180,768 1,057,622 892,869 164,753 244,841 162,519 82,322 4,639,245 3,657,384 981,861 1,291,742 534,185 757,557 171,043 49,613 121,430 432,239 211,271 220,968 88,929 16,279 72,650 599,531 257,022 342,509 15,231,525 6,024,832 9,206,693
30 Rajasthan 9,317,675 56,507,188 29,420,011 27,087,177 10,651,002 5,579,616 5,071,386 9,694,462 5,067,679 4,626,783 7,097,706 3,650,982 3,446,724 27,702,010 18,047,157 9,654,853 28,805,178 11,372,854 17,432,324 23,766,655 14,695,802 9,070,853 17,436,888 12,841,318 4,595,570 9,582,029 6,210,884 3,371,145 1,008,417 654,162 354,255 501,312 373,083 128,229 6,345,130 5,603,189 741,941 6,329,767 1,854,484 4,475,283 3,558,037 851,842 2,706,195 1,515,302 401,170 1,114,132 176,679 46,445 130,234 1,079,749 555,027 524,722 32,740,533 14,724,209 18,016,324
31 Sikkim 114,223 540,851 288,484 252,367 78,195 39,842 38,353 27,165 13,807 13,358 111,405 56,940 54,465 318,335 189,060 129,275 222,516 99,424 123,092 263,043 165,716 97,327 212,904 146,541 66,363 101,200 59,846 41,354 9,081 5,977 3,104 3,168 2,433 735 99,455 78,285 21,170 50,139 19,175 30,964 30,058 10,261 19,797 7,919 2,785 5,134 1,051 416 635 11,111 5,713 5,398 277,808 122,768 155,040
                                                                                                                 
32 Tamil Nadu 14,665,983 62,405,679 31,400,909 31,004,770 7,235,160 3,725,616 3,509,544 11,857,504 5,932,925 5,924,579 651,321 328,917 322,404 40,524,545 22,809,662 17,714,883 21,881,134 8,591,247 13,289,887 27,878,282 18,100,397 9,777,885 23,757,783 16,303,310 7,454,473 4,738,819 3,107,543 1,631,276 6,062,786 3,273,642 2,789,144 1,261,059 594,025 667,034 11,695,119 9,328,100 2,367,019 4,120,499 1,797,087 2,323,412 377,220 154,946 222,274 2,574,844 982,718 1,592,126 238,702 54,564 184,138 929,733 604,859 324,874 34,527,397 13,300,512 21,226,885
33 Tripura 664,334 3,199,203 1,642,225 1,556,978 436,446 222,002 214,444 555,724 283,186 272,538 993,426 504,320 489,106 2,022,099 1,150,707 871,392 1,177,104 491,518 685,586 1,159,561 831,346 328,215 912,292 742,054 170,238 252,343 203,826 48,517 168,519 127,177 41,342 19,896 12,201 7,695 471,534 398,850 72,684 247,269 89,292 157,977 60,957 17,136 43,821 107,613 35,463 72,150 15,396 2,629 12,767 63,303 34,064 29,239 2,039,642 810,879 1,228,763
34 Uttar Pradesh 25,757,640 166,197,921 87,565,369 78,632,552 31,624,628 16,509,033 15,115,595 35,148,377 18,502,838 16,645,539 107,963 55,834 52,129 75,719,284 48,901,413 26,817,871 90,478,637 38,663,956 51,814,681 53,983,824 40,981,558 13,002,266 39,337,649 34,338,260 4,999,389 18,479,865 16,326,802 2,153,063 5,956,547 4,816,377 1,140,170 2,091,956 1,611,880 480,076 12,809,281 11,583,201 1,226,080 14,646,175 6,643,298 8,002,877 3,687,697 1,153,085 2,534,612 7,444,364 3,429,222 4,015,142 939,208 334,665 604,543 2,574,906 1,726,326 848,580 112,214,097 46,583,811 65,630,286
35 Uttaranchal 1,603,242 8,489,349 4,325,924 4,163,425 1,360,032 712,949 647,083 1,517,186 780,772 736,414 256,129 131,334 124,795 5,105,782 3,008,875 2,096,907 3,383,567 1,317,049 2,066,518 3,134,036 1,996,177 1,137,859 2,322,347 1,639,242 683,105 1,067,647 531,003 536,644 142,624 122,799 19,825 49,027 34,905 14,122 1,063,049 950,535 112,514 811,689 356,935 454,754 502,469 153,419 349,050 117,059 67,695 49,364 23,421 8,839 14,582 168,740 126,982 41,758 5,355,313 2,329,747 3,025,566
36 West Bengal 15,872,083 80,176,197 41,465,985 38,710,212 11,414,222 5,824,180 5,590,042 18,452,555 9,469,659 8,982,896 4,406,794 2,223,924 2,182,870 47,196,401 27,452,426 19,743,975 32,979,796 14,013,559 18,966,237 29,481,690 22,388,044 7,093,646 23,023,583 19,494,971 3,528,612 4,556,026 4,182,888 373,138 4,522,934 3,744,905 778,029 1,436,378 778,046 658,332 12,508,245 10,789,132 1,719,113 6,458,107 2,893,073 3,565,034 1,097,896 472,322 625,574 2,840,023 1,335,331 1,504,692 735,692 139,134 596,558 1,784,496 946,286 838,210 50,694,507 19,077,941 31,616,566
Source: Census of India 2001
Note: @ The total population and rural population include estimated population of 127,108 for Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur. India’s population without the estimated population of these areas is 1,028,610,328 (532,156,772 males and 496,453,556 females)
Note : - Includes estimated population of Paomata, Mao Maram and Purul Sub-division of Senapati district of Manipur.