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Migration

Migration

   

   One important facet of study on population is the study of migration arising out of various social, economic or political reasons. For a large country like India, the study of movement of population in different parts of the country helps in understanding the dynamics of the society better. At this junction in the economic development, in the country, especially when many states are undergoing faster economic development, particularly in areas, such as, manufacturing, information technology or service sectors, data migration profile of population has become more important.
    When a person is enumerated in census at a different place than his / her place of birth, she / he is considered a migrant. This may be due to marriage, which is the most common reason for migration among females-or for work, what is the case as generally among males, etc. It also happens that many return to their place of birth after staying out. To capture such movements of population census collect information on migration by last helps to understand the current migration scenario better. In India, as per census 2001, about 307 million person have been reported as migration by place of birth. Out of them about 259 million (84.2%), migrated from on e part of the state to another, i.e., from one village or town to another village or town. 42 million (2%) from out side the country. The data on migration by last residence in India as per Census 2001 shows that the total number of migrants has been 314 million. Out of these migrants by last residence, 268 million (85%) has been intra-state migrants, those who migrated from one are of the state to another. 41 million (13%) were interstate migrants and 5.1 million (1.6%) migrated from out side of the country.

 

TABLE 10: NUMBER OF MIGRANTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH – INDIA 2001

  Category Migrations by Place of birth Percentage
A. Total Population 1,028,610,328  
B. Total Migrations 307,149,736 29.9
B.1 Migrants within the state of enumeration 258,641,103 84.2
B.11 Migrants from within the districts 181,799,637 70.3
B.12 Migrants from other districts of the state 76,841,466 29.7
B.2 Migrants from other states in India 42,341,703 13.8
B.3 Migrants from other countries 6,166,930 2.0
Source : Table D1 India, Census of India 2001.

TABLE 11: NUMBER OF MIGRANTS BY PLACE OF LAST RESIDENCE – INDIA 2001

  Category Migrations by Place of birth Percentage
A. Total Population 1,028,610,328  
B. Total Migrations 314,541,350 30.6
B.1 Migrants within the state of enumeration 268,219,260 85.3
B.11 Migrants from within the districts 193,592,938 72.2
B.12 Migrants from other districts of the state 74,626,322 17.8
B.2 Migrants from other states in India 41,166,265 13.1
B.3 Migrants from other countries 5,155,423 1.6
        
     Opportunities in urban areas for employment, education, etc have been a pull factor attracting migrants from rural to urban areas and from smaller towns and cities to larger urban areas. There is also migration in the opposite direction from urban to rural areas due to various reasons. The migration during the last decade, i.e., migrants with duration of residence of 0-9 years at the place of enumeration, by various migration streams are summarized in the following table:
 

TABLE 12: NUMBER OF INTRA-STATE AND INTER-STATE MIGRANTS IN THE COUNTRY (DURATION OF RESIDENCE 0-9 YEARS)
BY RURAL URBAN STATUS – INDIA 2001BY RURAL URBAN STATUS – INDIA 2001

Rural Urban status of place of last residence Rural unban status of place of enumeration
Total Rural Urban
Total 97,560,320 61,428,374 36,131,946
Rural 73,949,607 53,354,376 20,595,231
Urban 20,655,277 6,266,503 14,388,774
Unclassified 2,955,436 1,807,495 1,147,941
Source : Table D-2, Census of India 2001


Out of about 98 million, total intra-state and inter-state migrants in the country during last decade, 61 million have moved to rural areas and 36 million to urban areas. Migration stream out of rural areas(73 million) to another rural areas was quite high (53million) in comparison to from rural to urban areas (20 million). About 6 million migrants went to rural areas from urban areas. On the basis of net migrants by last residence during the past decade, i.e., the difference between in – migration and out – migration, in each state, Maharastra stands at the top of the list with 2.3 million net migrants, followed by Delhi (1.7 million), Gujrat (0.68 million) and Haryana (0.67 million) as per census. Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar (-1.7 million) were the two states with largest number of net migrants migrating out of the state.    There are various reasons for migration as per information collected in Census 2001 for migration by last residence. Most of the female migrants have cited ‘Marriage’ as the reason for migration, especially when the migration is within the state. For males, the major reasons for migration are ‘work/employment’ and ‘education’.

TABLE 13: REASONS FOR MIGRATION OF MIGRANTS BY LAST RESIDENCE
WITH DURATION (0-9 YEARS) INDIA 2001

Reason for migrations Number of Migrants Percentage to Migrants
  Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Total migrants 98,301,342 32,896,986 65,404,356 100.0 100.0 100.0
Reason for migration : Work / Employment 14,446,224 12,373,333 2,072,891 14.7 37.6 3.2
Business 1,136,372 950,245 186,127 1.2 2.9 0.3
Education 2,915,189 2,038,675 876,514 3.0 6.2 1.3
Marriage 43,100,911 679,852 42,421,059 43.8 2.1 64.9
Moved after birth 6,577,380 3,428,673 3,148,707 6.7 10.4 4.8
Moved with households 20,608,105 8,262,143 12,345,962 21.0 25.1 18.9
Other 9,517,161 5,164,065 4,353,096 9.7 15.7 6.7
Source: Table D3, Census of India 2001

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