(A). Background and Introduction :
It is well known that the Census organization,
which has a fascinating history, is the premier organization for providing population statistics
over a period of time and has laid the foundations of demographic research in India. But what is perhaps
not so widely known is that it is also one of the pioneering economic, social and cultural life of the
people comprising a spectrum of ethnic groups. In fact, it will not be wrong to say that the
Indian Census has made significant contribution to the anthropological and ethnological
studies and scholars have paid rich tribute to such studies.
The Indian Census has paid a good deal of attention to investigations of
anthropological nature. In fact, much has been made out by some critics of its `preoccupation’
with castes and tribes and cognate anthropological enquiries in the earlier decades. But the Census organization
blended demographic studies and anthropological enquiries in a happy manner. The Indian Census
has always been conscious of meeting the data needs and has accordingly always attempted to project
such data as would meet the requirement of the times for administration, planning and development.
INTER CENSAL SOCIAL STUDIES PROJECTS:-
Since its inception in 1961 the Social Studies Division has under
taken various types of studies as a part of Social Studies. Worth mentioning
among them are socio-economic survey of villages, Special studies on selected towns,
survey of handicrafts and fair and festivals, preparation of ethnographic notes on scheduled
castes and schedule tribes. The details of such studies/monographs
published by the Social Studies Division as an ancillary studies
during 1961, 1971 and 1981 Census are as under.
During the inter-censal period (1963-68) of 1961 Census about five hundred villages all over
India were taken up for socio-economic surveys. The villages were selected on a purposive
basis to cover adequately geographical, occupational and ethnic diversity.
Some villages were of medium size with multi-ethnic population and having
variegated occupations though primarily dependent on agriculture while others had one dominant
community with one predominant occupation, like fishing, pottery, etc. or were primarily
inhabited by a Scheduled Tribes. The village studies provide a diachronic perspective to similar
studies undertaken by others. A few of the villages surveyed during 1961 census had been studied
earlier by scholars or administrators and these 1961 series studies thus know light on the socio-economic
processes and changes in these villages during the last few decades. Even if some of the village survey
monographs have not presented analysis in depth for obvious reasons, they, in any case, provide an excellent
source material in the nature of 'bench-mark' data for undertaking diachronic studies either in their totality or in
regard to in-depth analysis of one of the many aspects covered in these monographs.
About 331 such monographs based on survey of selected villages all over the country were published.
1971 and 1981 Census
1971 and 1981 Census: -
and 1981 inter-censal period no fresh village study was undertaken. However, during the periods attempts were made to re-study some of the villages studied during 1961
inter-censal period with a view to have an insight in the changing scene of rural societies under the influence of planned development as
well as industrialization and urbanization and other driving forces during the last decades. The village selected for restudies primarily on the basis of their location in
relation to nearby effective urban centre. Besides, a few villages situated in specific area viz.,
Dry area, Rural Development Plan area etc., were selected as inter-censal village restudies of 1971 and 1981 censuses.
A total of 77 studies each in 1971 and 1981 census were taken up in inter-censal period. Of which 5 in 1971 Census and 63 reports in 1981 Census were published.
Socio-demographic study of villages/re-study of villages:
India is characterized by its village communities.
Despite rapid industrialization and urbanization, basic socio-economic structure of the villages in remote country side has remained more or less
unaffected although the village folk living' within the neighbourhood of urban centres are somewhat moved by the winds of change to
a varied extent depending upon the population size, economic and other important characteristics of such places and also the nature
and mode of transport existing between the urban and rural centres. And if one is interested ta have the 'feel' of Indian social matrix!
it is essential to 'know' about the village India. With this focus in view, it was decided to take up the socio-economic survey of large number of villages
situated in varied socio-cultural setting as ancillary to 1961 Census and about 400 village studies were published.
During the inter-censal period of 1971. and 1981, focus of social studies was further enhanced by undertaking town studies and
handicraft studies besides the restudy of villages.
TOWN STUDIES:Town studies were taken up during this period.-
Till 1971 census the anthropological studies carried out by the Census Organization
were mostly confined to backward groups and rural societies. An ancillary to 1971 Census, for the first time the Census of India attempted
Urban Studies of small and medium towns as an operational need of the organization to project, as far as possible, a complete picture of the
people in areas are not always sharply defined. It was therefore, realized that the findings of the socio-economic surveys of villages undertaken
during the 1961 Census had somewhat limited relevance unless these were supplemented by urban studies to have an idea of not only the close linkages and
net-work of relations between the rural and urban areas but also to understand socio-economic process generated by urbanization on the rural neighborhood.
These somewhat detailed studies of small and medium towns, distributed all over the country, were in addition to directories of towns brought out in 1971
Census which gave some minimum basic information about each town. In all 26 Towns Reports were published..
With more or less same objectives mentioned above reports on about 50 towns were published during the 1981 Census.
During- the current inter-censal period 100 towns studies proposed to be taken up with slight variation in their focus which would be to
identify the social demographic, economic, spatial and other factors that are causing rapid population growth in case of certain %mall and
medium town and stagnation or decline in the population of some of the towns falling under that category. Apart from these town studies a few
studies on slums of the large cities will be taken up with a view to analyze factors for the slum dwellers, physical quality of life in the slums etc.
Apart from these with a view to know about the trends of suburbanisation around large cities, few studies en urbanisation and trends arid directions with
the standard urban area of the large cities will also be taken up.
ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDIES: -
As mentioned elsewhere, it was customary during the pre-independence era to
provide some ethnographic data on castes and tribes. The 1931 Census made the largest single contribution in this regard. The ethnographic studies were resumed after a lapse of three decades.
These were confined to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and were undertaken to study socio-economic changes and project their cultural profiles as well as to meet the need of administration for
their p1anned development. While the Indian Census had earlier provided short notes on castes and tribes the anthropologists in general by and large limited their interest to the study of tribal societies
to the almost total exclusion of castes in so far as ethnographic studies were concerned. The studies on castes primarily dealt with the origin, functioning and dynamics of the institution of caste itself.
As a result, only a few monographs were attempted by anthropologists, in the model of full-fledged ethnographic studies on castes, like the Chamar (Brigs, 1920) and the Balahi (Fuchs,1950). The ethnographic
monographs brought out by the Census Organization from 1961 onwards have paid equal attention to Scheduled Castes. They, however appropriately focus on their special characteristics, like social status, untouchability,
traditional occupation and mobility, within the common broad framework adopted for ethnographic studies. The ethnographic monographs brought out by the Census organization have certain special features. They are geared
to meet the requirements of the socio-legal issues relating to ethnic identity. In view of the Constitutional benefits accruing to the members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, a number of claims are staked
identifying a group with one of the Scheduled Castes/Tribes on the ground that it is synonymous name or segment of the latter. The caste indices of 1891 and 1901 Censuses and the detailed particulars available on castes
and tribes in previous census reports have been extremely useful in verifying such claims. It is for this reason that the monographs brought out by the Census organization lay stress on social structure in relation to segment
and synonyms of a community spatially and otherwise in the light of the social mobility among the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. In addition, these monographs stress certain other aspects which, apart from their intrinsic
value, help in planned development of these groups. These relate to studies of social reform movements, alignments that are taking place among the various sections of the community, the welfare measures and development programmes
undertaken during the five year plans and their impact on the community, besides studying improvement in the level of education, and social and economic mobility. The Census organization is particularly in an advantageous position to
consider the question of occupational mobility and improvements in the level of education in respect of each Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe in view of the statistical data generated during 1961 and 1971 Censuses or industrial classification
or workers and levels of education, etc. referred to earlier. The interpretation of macro level data collected during the census operations in the light of field investigations in the representative areas helps in studying the social change and
processes at work among the relevant Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe.
As mentioned earlier, the monographs on Scheduled Castes lay stress on such issues as
their present social status and the extent to which these castes suffer from social disabilities, the changes coming in this regard as a result of social legislation and changes in the values of the people in the wake of social mobility, education,
and similar factors. Ethnographic notes on Scheduled Castes constitute 98 in 1961for 10 states. The corresponding number for STs is 94 in 13 States.
The ethnographic studies which continuing from 1961 onwards had been attempted at two levels, viz., the state level and the central level. The central series monographs are somewhat more detailed studies of individual Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes,
while the state-series monographs brought out by the Census Directorates generally include shorter ethnographic notes on a number of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
. Field investigations on SC/ST in various States/UTs continued and reports were brought out during this period.
The ethnographic notes on SCs & STs constitute 24 and 7 for 3 and 4 States respectively. .
Fresh ethnographic studies were not taken up but a few reports on which field investigations were done during 1971 census were printed.
There was no proposal to take up separate ethnographic studies on SC/ST during the current inter censal period.
HANDICRAFT SURVEY: -
The primary aim of the craft surveys undertaken as part of the 1961 Census programme was as much to obtain
a picture of the artisan himself as of his craft, the extent to which tradition bound the craftsman and the manner in which he adjusted himself to the changed conditions,
such as competition posed by modern technology and money economy etc. In the light of the social structure of the rural societies, the ramifications of the various processes
were to be understood in terms of dependence on socially preordained clientele and their regulation under seemingly unalterable laws of social customs. At the same time there was full realization of
the fact that the social structure of the rural societies was undergoing change, though at varying pace. The change in the Jajmani (patron-client) relationship and then social stratification had
a direct impact on the traditional crafts and an understanding of this relationship was a pre requisite for attempt at revival of the dying crafts. The impact of education and consequent occupational mobility
resulting in giving up of traditional crafts was also an aspect that merited consideration.
It was realized that the traditional craft could not be revived or strengthened unless they were geared to the needs of modern times and technology and also adjusted to social and cultural changes. The organizations
like the All India Handicrafts Board and the Handloom Board also gave attention to the handicrafts industry. They provided the necessary institutional support for promotion of sales, particularly of export oriented crafts
and consequent development of skills of the craftsmen, improvement of designs and supply of raw materials, etc. The craft surveys undertaken by the Census organization also went into these issues in some detail but as mentioned earlier,
they mainly sought to examine the close nexus between the artisan and the craft and thereby considered the social and ethnic perspective in relation to the ancientness of the craft and associated legends.
The craft surveys were carried out with twin objective. On the one hand these were related to the frame-work of census questionnaire designed to provide data to help in the planning and development of traditional crafts and households
industry and, on the other, for studying the craftsman in relation to his social setting and inter-relationship which bound the artisan castes with agricultural and other consumer castes within the broad network of sanctified relations on
the model of anthropological investigations. The primary aim of this study was to obtain the picture of the artisan himself as of his craft, the extent to which tradition bound the craftsman and the manner in which he adjusted himself to
the changed conditions, such as competition posed by modern technology and money economy etc. In all about 150 reports on different crafts were brought out.
Further, a number of rural based crafts reports (which were discontinued during the 1971 Census) were taken up as inter-censal studies during 1981 Census.
In all, 45 Handicrafts Studies were taken up for study. Out of which 31 Handicrafts Reports were published in 1981 Census.
FAIRs AND FESTIVALS:
Besides, in 1961 Census generally, in each state one volume was brought out covering
all the important fairs and festivals of the state. In state like Andhra Pradesh, district wise volume on fairs and festivals were brought out. In the Social Studies Division at the Centre,
in-depth studies in respect of some of the major festivals like, ugadi and Moharram in two cities in Delhi and Lucknow were taken up. In all about 50 volumes on fairs and festivals were published. .
In addition to above, the studies conducted during inter censal period of 1961 includes study on Folk lore, temples of Madras state, family Planning attitudes in Madras City etc. The 1971studies include "the music of Kinnaur" under the project ethno-musicogoloy, 'a monograph on Muharram in Hyderabad city', 'modernization and allieds in Arunachal Pradesh' etc. .
During inter - censal period of 1971, 1981 and 1991, State level Town Directory and All India Town Directory covering all the towns of respective States and at National level based on 1971,1981 and 1991 Censuses data were published.
. No such Town Directory has been
published in 2001 Census.
STUDY OF LESSER KNOWN TRIBES OF INDIA:-
This study proposed to present detailed ethnographic information on each of
the Lesser known Tribes in the country. The Scheduled Tribes on Which either absolutely no information was available or those with very little ethnographic detail and moderate numerical
strength were identified for field study in various States/Union Territories. The information on each of such tribe was collected by on ducting field investigations. The field study was
conducted by Investigators with sufficient experience in social Research. Different schedules were canvassed during the field investigations to collect information with respect to each
tribe on ethnic identity, social organization, economic activity and the changes that have come about in their society over the years.
Detailed ethnographic studies on twelve lesser known tribes of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh were undertaken by the Social Studies Division as part of ancillary studies
connected with the 1981 Census.
The net results of these Glossary and Study on Lesser known Tribes of India were very encouraging. The experience gained during field survey inspired this Division to continue ethnographic studies
on SC/ST at a broader scale. It was proposed to bring out detailed ethnographic account on each Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe highlighting the present status of their socio-economic and demographic characteristics.
DISTRIBUTION 0F INFRASTRACTURAL FACILITIES IN DIFFERENT REGIONS AND LEVELS AND TRENDS OF URBANISATION
(i) In consonance with the policy of making development programmes more area specific and minimizing the regional imbalances in the process of development, this organization had undertaken a 'Study on Distribution of Infrastructural Facilities in Different Regions and Levels and Trends of Urbanization' under Sixth and Seventh Five Year Plans which also continued during the Eight Five Year Plan as well. The basic objective of the scheme is to study in a time series, the pattern of spatial distribution of amenities, like educational. institutions, medical facilities, drinking water supply approach reads, post a0d telegraph, supply of electricity etc., in rural areas of different States and Union Territories.
(ii) These were mostly covered by the Minimum Needs Programme. The pattern of distribution was required to be studied in relation to different variables, with the objective to identify regional imbalances existing in regard to the distribution of the above mentioned amenities and services. Such exercises were expected to help in determining the size of investment that would be required for providing institutional and basic infrastructural facilities from time to time especially in rural areas. Side by side, it was also envisaged to study various aspects of urbanisation at different levels. Such a study expected to provide useful data for urban development planning. One of the main objectives of the study was to build up time series data for rural and urban areas for successive census years keeping the 1971 census data as the bench mark for undertaking analytical studies in a longitudinal perspective in regard to distribution of infrastructural facilities in rural areas and levels and trends of urbanization.
(iii) In fact, the scheme, as approved by the Planning Commission under the Sixth Five Year Plan, envisaged carrying out time series studies which would be useful in evaluating the impact of developmental inputs on the generation of infrastructure and provision of amenities and d services. This was necessary as the targets set by the Planning Commission in respect of availability of amenities mostly covered under the Minimum Needs Programme, were supposed to be achieved in a phased manner. As in the case of the rural areas, the data on levels and trends of urbanization and sub urban sprawl were required to be examined on the basis of time series data from 1971-81 onwards.
ACHIEVEMENTS DURING THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLANS
SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1980-85) :
During the Sixth Plan period, a report based on the analysis of data collected during 1971 Census pertaining to distribution of infrastructural facilities in different regions and on different aspects relating to urbanisation was brought out as Occasional Paper-I of 1986, study on distribution of infrastructural facilities in different regions and levels and trends of urbanisation..
This report provided a detailed analysis on distribution of infrastructural facilities in rural areas and on delineation of regions with different levels of infrastructural development. The report also contained a study on the influence of socio-economic land other factors on availability of amenities. With regard to the study on the urbanisation aspects, the report provided detailed account of the phenomenon of urban growth in India. Progress of urbanisation in India since 1901 (with analysis of regional and sub-regional disparities), factors associated with urban population growth during 1951-81, emerging trends of sub urbanisation and on certain aspects of housing conditions in large urban centres and dispersal of key infrastructural facilities in small towns.
Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90)
(i) A report no “Negative Aspects of Urbanisation – A study on the civic and other amenities available in notified slums of Class I and II towns (Paper 3 of 1988) based on data collected at the 1981 census was brought out.
(ii) The all-India report on “Availability of Infrastructural Facilities in Rural Area of State and Union Territories (1971-81)” was published. This report provides a detailed analysis of data on infrastructural development at district, state and zonal level during the decades 1971-81.
(iii)A report on the emerging trends of sub-urbanisation and urban sprawl was also prepared wherein the 1981 census data on Standard Urban Areas have been analyzed.
(iv) In order to highlight the role of small towns in regional development, an analytical report on dispersal of infrastructural facilities in small towns was prepared with a view to understand whether infrastructural growth has kept pace with temporal and spatial growth particularly in small towns.
(v) Further, for discerning the patterns of growing imbalance in urban growth in different regions, necessary longitudinal population data for selected urban centers have been compiled and analyzed in the report on growing imbalances in regional urban growth.
Household Structure In India (Occasional Paper No.1 of 1991)
The said Report is based on the secondary analysis of data of households , Census of India, 1981 which were presented in the table "Households by Composition and Size". The major objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of household types in different states/UTs of India based on 1981 Census data and to find out the correlation of household types in a State/UT with kinship norms, demographic features and socio economic conditions. It also intended to test some of the hypotheses.
Achievements during the Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) :-
Study on Availability of Basic and other Amenities in the Large Size Villages:
(i) Under the Tenth five year plan a proposal was made to undertake the analysis of data on infrastructural facilities available in the large size villages. The study was one of the component of Plan Scheme "Study on Infrastructural Facilities in Different Regions and Levels and Trends of Organisation" under the Major Plan Head "Techno-Socio Demographic Study based on Census Data". The Large size villages were selected for the survey on the availability of various infrastructural facilities and other amenities because of their importance of having potential of growing into urban areas. It is expected that the provision of basic facilities, other amenities and services will bridge the gap of rural -urban disparity and improve the quality of life . Such an exercise is expected to help both Planners and Administrators in planning and implementation of schemes for development and comparatively less equipped villages and in diminishing the disparity in terms of various amenities and facilities, reconstruction and up-lift of the villages. The Study also enables to find out the pattern of spatial distribution of amenities and services to identify the disparity and imbalances in term of their distribution in large size village of different States and UTs.
(ii)The villages having population of 5000and above were identified as Large Size villages in all states and Union Territories except twelve smaller states and UTs where the minimum population limit of the said village was 2000. Those twelve States and UTs include Goa, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, MIzoram, Meghalaya, Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Lakshadweep, Puducherry and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
(iii) It was decided to undertake the survey with the help of field staff of Deptt. of Posts, Govt. of India. The Deptt. of Posts also agreed to provide the services of Branch Post Master (BPM), the officials of village level Post Offices along with the supervision of District Superintendent of Posts at the district level for data collection in each village. The Village Schedules along with Instruction Manual prepared in SS Division were supplied to all the Census Directorates. It was considered appropriate to undertake the field survey in a phased manner so that the officers of Census Directorate could supervise the field work and at the same time quality of the data provided in the filled-in Schedule could be checked in a proper manner before these are accepted by the Census Directorate.
(iv) A total number of 19,349 Large Size villages out of 593,616 inhabited villages as per 2001 Census were surveyed. Data were analyzed and Draft Report was prepared in SS division.
DETAILS OF CENSUS RELATED ACTIVITIES-
FINALIZATION OF URBAN FRAME AND URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS-
I. Urban Frame:--
(a) All places which have been notified under law and have local bodies like municipal corporations, municipalities, municipal committees, municipal boards, municipal town committees, cantonment boards, notified areas, notified area committees, town committees, town areas, town boards, town municipalities, sanitary boards, nagar panchayats, etc., irrespective of their demographic characteristics.
(b) All other places which satisfied the following criteria:
(i) A minimum population of 5,000;
(ii)At least 75 per cent of the male main working population engaged in non- agricultural pursuits; and
(iii)At least 75 per cent of the male main working population engaged in non- agricultural pursuits; and
The units that fall under category (a) above are designated as “Statutory Towns” and those in category (b) are designated as “Census Towns”. In Census 2011, a total of 7933 towns were identified. The corresponding number in Census 2001 was 5161. Out of these, as many as 4041 were designated as Statutory Towns and 3892 were designated as Census Towns. The corresponding numbers in Census 2001 was 3799 and 1362 respectively.
II. URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS (UA):--
Indian Census has been presenting demographic data for rural and urban areas separately. The unit of classification of data is 'town’ for urban areas and 'village’ for rural areas. The Social Studies Division finalizes the lists of statutory and census towns sent by the Directorates of States/Union Territories after the scrutiny of their proposals prior to both phases of the decadal Census. The Census Circular No. 2 regarding Rural Urban Classification i is prepared and issued to all the Census Directorates.
The definition of a town is as follows:
(a) The core town or at least one of the constituent towns of an urban agglomeration should necessarily be a statutory town; and -
(b) The total population of an Urban Agglomeration (i.e. all the constituents put together) should not be less than 20,000 as per the 2001 Census.
In varying local conditions, there were similar other combinations which have been treated as urban agglomerations satisfying the basic condition of contiguity.
III.OUT GROWTH (OG) :--
Proposals regarding Urban Agglomerations forwarded by the State/UT Directorates are scrutinized and finalized in this division. Detailed Instructions were issued vide Census Circular No. 3 regarding the formation of Urban Agglomerations for Census 2011.
At the 1961 Census, the concept of “Town Group” was adopted to obtain a broad picture relating to urban spread. This was refined in 1971 with the concept of ‘Urban Agglomeration’ to obtain better feed back in regard to urban contiguity, processes and trends of urbanization and other related matters. This concept has remained operative in the 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011 Censuses without any change or modification.
An urban agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining outgrowths (OGs), or two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns. In some cases railway colonies, university campuses, port areas, military camps, etc., would have come up near a statutory town outside its statutory limits but within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town. Each of these individual areas may by itself not satisfy the criteria for it to qualify as an independent urban unit but may qualify to be clubbed with the existing towns as their continuous urban spread (i.e. an Out Growth). For the purpose of identification of Urban Agglomerations for 2011 Census, following criteria have been adopted:
The outgrowth is a viable unit such as a village or a hamlet or an enumeration block and clearly identifiable in terms of its boundaries and location. While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of waste water etc. educational institutions, post offices, medical facilities, banks etc and physically contiguous with the core town of the UA.
On the basis of above criteria, in Census 2011, 474 UAs were identified against 384 in Census 200. Similarly, 981 OGs were identified in 2011, against 960 in 2001.
DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK (Parts A & B) :-
(i)After each Census District Census Handbook is brought out as a census publication. The District Census Handbook (DCHB) is one of the most important publications of the Census Organization since 1951. It contains both census and non census data of urban as well as rural areas for each district. The data of DCHB 2011 Census have been presented in two parts, Part-A contains Village and Town Directory including Slums on various infrastructure facilities available in each village and town viz; education, medical, drinking water, communication and transport, post and telegraph, electricity, banking, and other miscellaneous facilities collected prior to the Census through concerned Distrcit Authorities. Part-B contains Village and Town wise Primary Census Abstract. The PCA part of this publication contain census data on demographic and socio-economic characteristics of population at the lowest administrative unit i.e. village for rural areas and ward for urban areas including data on household amenities collected during 1st.phase of the census i.e. house listing and housing census. The non census data presented in DCHB in the form of Village Directory and Town Directory The data of DCHB are of considerable importance in the context of planning and development at grass-root level. The scope and coverage of Village Directory of 2011 DCHB has been widened by including a number of new amenities in addition to those of 2001.
(ii) The SS Division prepares the Schedules for collection of Village and Town Directory along with Instruction Manuals incorporating the suggestion of the Expert Committee chaired by the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. The Census Circular No. 4 to this effect is prepared and issued to all the Census Directorates. The task of Planning, Designing and Co-ordination of this publication is carried out by SS Division under the guidance & supervision of the Addl.RGI and RG&CCI. This time related Census Circular No. 4-A was issued this time for inconsistencies checking of Village and Town Directory data, frame of District Census Handbooks (DCHBs) including its tabulation plan and detailed instructions was issued to all the Census Directorates vide Census Circular No. 4-B
UPDATING SCHEDULED CASTES & SCHEDULED TRIBES LIST OF STATES/UTS.
The SCs & STs lists are compiled and updated taking into account the amendments taken place resulting in the inclusion of entries and deletion of few old entries in/from the SCs /STs list of some states/ UTs after the preceding census and prior to 1st phase i.e. the House listing phase of the ensuing Census. These lists are prerequisite for enumeration of SCs and STs of each State and UT.
Field Visits for Pre-Test, Supervision, Monitoring of all activities relating to the Population Enumeration phase of 2011 Census and also for monitoring the progress of actual Population Enumeration.
In the year 2009 officers of this Division visited twice for checking block formation, preparation of Charge Register, Abridge House List information etc., linking of HLO and PE data at House hold level, canvassing of House hold Schedule etc. both in rural and urban charge and also to check updating of AHL information, canvassing of NPR (National Population Register ) Schedules during NPR phase.
FINALIZATION OF TABULATION PLAN FOR THE CENSUS DATA ON SCS & STS
This Division scrutinizes an finalizes the Tabulation for cross classified Census data on individual SCs & STs contained under PCA tabled and SCs Series and ST series Special Tables. Also contributes in finalisation of entire Tabulation Plan for the Census data.
PREPARATION OF CODE DIRECTORY OF SCS & STS AND RELIGION RETURNS AND CLASSIFICATION OF ENTRIES UNDER SCS, STS AND RELIGION COLUMNS OF THE CENSUS SCHEDULES
Code Directory containing six digit code for each Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe and each religion returned in the Census is prepared for the purpose of processing of data. This work is done prior to the population enumeration phase of the Census based on the information collected at preceding Census and the amendments taken place in the SCs & STs lists of States/UTs by inclusion of new names or deletion of some old entries prior to the ensuing Census. Final editing and classification of the thousands of unclassified SCs and STs entries recorded during the Census into appropriate category in respect of all states and UTs is done on the basis of information given in published dependable ethnographic volumes. The work of finalization of religion data at the states & district and Tehsil levels is one of the major items of work under taken in this Division.
Finalization of Tables/Volume
•A-8 & A-9 Union/State Primary Census Abstract (PCA) for SC & ST
Validity checking of census data relating to the demographic, socio-economic and cultural profile of each SC and ST area wise and sex wise at national, state & district level is done prior to their release. Data of following Tables are validated and finalized.
• A-10 & A-11 State PCA for Individual SC & ST
• SC Series - 14 Tables
• ST Series - 16 Tables
• Disability Related Tables
• Religion Related Tables
• HH-4, HH-10 & HH-11 Tables.
RECASTING/ESTIMATION OF SCS AND STS POPULATION AS ON SPECIFIC DATE OF PRECEDING CENSUS WITH RESPECT TO VARIOUS STATES/UTS FOR READJUSTMENT OF SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES SEATS IN THE PARLIAMENTARY AND ASSEMBLY CONSTITUENCIES
The delimitation of constituencies and reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of People and in the State Assemblies is done on the basis of the proportion of SCs and STs population to the total population of the state/UT at the last census ascertained and notified by the Census Commissioner, India. Under the provision of Articles 330 and 332 and section 8 of the Delimitation Act the Election Commission is empowered to carry out readjustment of reservation of constituencies, based on the changed population of SCs and STs ascertained as on specific date viz. 1st March or 1st April of preceding census for the purpose of giving proper representation to the SC or as the case may be to the STs of that state/UT. Figures not obtained at the decadal censuses cannot be taken for the purpose of determining population of SCs or STs for the said purpose. Consequent to the SCs and STs Order (Amendment) Act, 1976 there was significant increase in the population of SCs & STs of different states/UTs due to removal of the area restriction. As per the said Act, population of all STs and STs of the concerned states were ascertained as on 1st April, 1971 on the basis of population returned at 1981 Census and notified by the then Census Commissioner, India. Thereafter, the Election Commission carried out readjustment of reservation of constituencies, based on the changed population of SCs and STs ascertained as on 1st April 1971.
Thereafter, five amendments/Order were promulgated in the years 2002, 2007 and 2008 with respect to 23 states and 5 UTs. Consequent to these amendments, SCs and STs lists have been modified by inclusion of more castes and tribes, deletion of few earlier SCs/STs, change of status from SCs to STs, removal of area restriction and imposition of area restriction in few cases have taken took etc. Election Commission had desired that a Legislation may be enacted on the lines of the 1976 Act empowering the Election Commission to carry out re-adjustment of seats for the SCs and STs in the light of the revised population figures of the SCs and STs as may be ascertained and determined by the Census Commissioner with reference to 1st March 2001.
Accordingly, an Ordinance namely "the Readjustment of Representation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Ordinance, 2013 was promulgated by the Hon'ble President of India in exercise of powers conferred in clause(1) of article 123 of the Constitution. Under sub section (1), (2), & (3) of Section 3 of the said Ordinance the Census Commissioner had to ascertain/estimate the population of SCs and STs at the last Census i.e. on 1st March, 2001 keeping in view of the amendments taken place in the SCs & STs list after 2001 Census and prior to 2011 Census with respect to 23 States and 5 UTs. Consequent to the said Ordinance, population figures of all the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes mentioned in the Amendments commenced after 2001 Census upto the “The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Act, 2008” were ascertained. The ascertained population of SCs and STs and their proportion to the total population of said states/UTs were notified in the Gazette of India Extraordinary in the year 2013. The notified figures and ascertained population of SCs and STs at the lowest administrative levels both for rural and urban for the said States/UTs were provided to the Election the for the purpose of delimitation of constituencies and reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes prior to the Lok Sabha Election 2014.
DETAILS OF NON CENSUS RELATED ACTIVITIES
REVISION OF SCs/STs LISTS
Examination of proposals for revision of SCs and STs list
The Social Studies Division of this office is required to provide technical advice to the Ministry of Tribal Affairs and Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment on matters relating to revision of the lists of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The ORGI library is well equipped with relevant materials and information for examining such proposals on the revision of the lists of SC/ST. Further, comments on special issues and socio political problems like Bodo, Jharkhand movements, demand for separate Gorkhaland etc. were also provided as and when the concerned Ministries/Deptt. sought the advice. This Division examines the proposals received from the said Ministries as per the modalities and criteria approved by the Government of India. The proposals are examined on the basis of the information provided by the State Government and those given in the published anthropological and ethnographical volumes of repute this office provides its comments to the concerned Ministries i.e. Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment and Ministry of Tribal Affairs for revision of SCs/STs list for inclusion in/exclusion of communities in/from the list. This is one of the regular work of this Division. Census reports of earlier decades contain a veritable mine of ethnographic details on castes and tribes and the same information are still being used extensively to identify ethnic groups which qualify to be specified as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. After the Independence studies on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were continued to collect information on different socio economic aspects for enabling the Government to discharge its constitutional obligations towards these notified castes and tribes.
GLOSSARY NOTES ON SCHEDULED CASTES :
The aspects on which the data were collected during field investigations included ethnic identity, social organisation and social status. Different types of schedules were canvassed for this study to elicit information. The field investigations were carried out in 8 States/UTs. These included Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Rajasthan. The Investigators submitted the field notes on each Scheduled Caste on the basis of preliminary investigations made in the field. These draft notes and the data collected in the field were thoroughly scrutinised by the Research Officers. In a few cases, the necessity of conducting supplementary field investigations was felt to fill up the gaps in the data.
BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SCHEDULED CASTES, SCHEDULED TRIBES AND SELECTED MARGINAL COMMUNITIES :
An exhaustive Bibliography on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which could be used by planners, administrators and research scholars interested in SCs and STs were brought out in three volumes. The first volume ( A-K Series) was published in 1970, while the second volume ( L-Z Series) was brought out in 1972. The supplementary volume covering the references up to 1980 with a separate section on references dealing with Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in general was published in 1982.
SOCIO – ECONOMIC AND CASTE CENSUS 2011
The last Census when caste-wise data was collected, tabulated and published in detail was in the 1931 Census. As a matter of policy , collection, tabulation, and publication of data on castes other than Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has not been done in Census since independence. The decision to discourage community distinction based on the Caste was in keeping with the spirit of the secular State enshrined in the Preamble of the Constitution of Indi (Extracts from the speech of the Hon'ble Home Minister, Shri Vallabh Bhai Patel delivered in the year 1950).
However, demand for enumeration of castes other than Scheduled Castes in the Census in the Census 2011 was raised inside Parliament as well as by various interest groups outside was considered by a Group of Ministers (GoM) chaired by Shri Pranab Mukherjee, the then Union Finance Minister. On the recommendations of the GoM, the Cabinet, in its meeting on 9th September, 2010, decided inter-alia to conduct caste enumeration, as a separate exercise after the Population Enumeration phase of the Census 2011 was over, from the month of June, 2011 and complete it in a phased manner by September, 2011. The Government considered all factors and decided not to enumerate castes in the Census 2011.The main rationale was that such enumeration would affect the integrity of the Census count. It was therefore decided that the enumeration of castes would be done as a separate exercise after the main census was over.
The proposal at that stage was only to give a count of all the castes. There was no proposal to give the socio-economic profile of the castes. On subsequent demands from Members of Parliament for providing the Socio-Economic profile of each caste along with the count, the matter was reconsidered and the Union Cabinet decided on 19th May, 2011 that a combined survey called “Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC)” will be conducted by the Government of India across the country. The field work for this survey will be conducted by the respective State/UT Governments. The financial and technical support for this exercise will be provided by the Government of India. The Nodal Ministries in the Government of India would be the Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation for rural and urban areas respectively. The Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India under Ministry of Home Affairs (India) would provide technical and logistic support to the entire exercise.
Accordingly, the SECC commenced on 29th June, 2011 from the State of Tripura. As of now, the field survey has been completed in all states and UTs. The Ministry of Rural Development has already released data relating to the socio economic status in rural areas on 3rd July, 2015. As far as caste data is concerned, the discrepancies in data have been referred to the States concerned for rectification. As decided by the union Cabinet an Expert Committee under the Chairmanship of Shri Arvind Panagariya, Vice Chairperson, NITI AAYOG have also been formed to classify the Castes/Tribes returned in the said combined exercise.